Here is what you need to be qualified to apply for the EPIK program (public school jobs in Korea) and get the E2 teaching visa:
1. Be from America, Canada, South Africa, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, or Ireland. This shows Korea that you are a native English speaker.
2. Have a bachelor degree at least.
3. TEFL/TESOLS certificate: Not everyone needs this, it depends what your degree was. If you have a masters degree of any sort, you do not need to have a TEFL/TESOLS. If you have a bachelors degree in Education, TESOL. or Second Language Studies, than you also do not need to get a TESOL/TEFL certificate. If you have a bachelor's degree in another major, and no masters degree, than you must get a TESOL/TEFL certificate. But, worry not, there are so many acceptable TESOL certificates out there. And, unless you want to teach in Busan, the course does not need to include in-class hours. It just has to be at least 100 hours. Pretty much any course is accepted. I got my tesol certificate from a groupon on the internet for less than $100.
4. Be no older than 62 years old.
5. Able to get at 2 letters of recommendation from academic/professional sources.
If you meet all of these qualifications, you are able to apply to teach English in South Korea! EPIK and SMOE (Seoul) hires twice a year, in the fall (August) and spring (February). Application processes usually start early. For example, I sent in my initial application to apply for the fall of 2014 in February of 2014. The earlier you apply, the better chance you have of getting placed in the city/area that you want. There are a few more things you must get in order to apply, such as a FBI Criminal Record Check (CRC), sealed transcripts, and an apostilled copy of your Bachelor's degree. If you have a teaching license already, you must show that as well. Detailed information can be found on the EPIK website. If you have any questions at all about applying or teaching in South Korea, please let me know!